Type 2 diabetes is a condition of the body’s metabolism that commonly occurs when the body fails to produce enough insulin or when insulin fails to work optimally, this condition is called insulin resistance. What is insulin? Insulin is a hormone that functions to stimulate cells to take glucose in the blood and then use it as energy. When this condition occurs, the cells are not instructed by insulin to take sugar in the blood, meaning that sugar is high in the blood. This condition is called hyperglycemia.
Usually, humans experience type 2 diabetes after the age of 40 years. However, most people in South Asia are more at risk of type 2 diabetes, they have experienced this disease since the age of 25 years. Now this condition is very common and is common among teenagers and even children of all populations. Type 2 diabetes usually results from excessive weight, lack of physical activity or due to obesity. This disease is increasing throughout the world because of these three problems.
Type two diabetes is a common type of disease among diabetes, about 90% of all diabetes cases because besides this there is also type 1 diabetes. While treatment is done by changing lifestyles and using drugs.
The Types of Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is also called juvenile diabetes, this type usually occurs in children and adolescents. If you suffer from type 1 diabetes, this is a condition where the body fails to produce insulin, then type 1 diabetes patients must be given an injection of insulin. The patient will always depend on the administration of the hormone insulin, otherwise the sufferer will be dangerous.
Furthermore, type 2 diabetes is also called non-insulin Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM). This disease can be treated with lifestyle changes or by giving drugs other than insulin. In general, type 2 diabetes is more common than type 1 diabetes.
Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetics if not handled properly can harm the body including damaging blood vessels. When high sugar levels in the blood, it can eventually damage blood vessels, nerves, and even one’s organs. In this situation, the body works hard to get rid of sugar through the urine, and this is one of the symptoms of someone having type 2 diabetes. Below are the symptoms of type 2 diabetes.
- Increased thirst (Polydipsia)
- Hunger increasing (Polyphagia)
- Increased frequency of urination (Polyuria), especially midnight
- Decreased weight, significant fatigue, and sudden loss of muscle mass
Symptoms like this are also seen in people with type 1 diabetes but in type 2 diabetes, these symptoms develop persistently, can occur for months and can also be in a matter of years. This condition causes sufferers sometimes do not know that he is experiencing diabetes. So, in most cases, after being diagnosed they did not know that he had diabetes before.
Risk factors for diabetes
There are several conditions that make a person more at risk for diabetes. Including the following:
- Obesity or obesity,
- Unhealthy diet,
- Waist size more than 31.5 inches in women
- Waist size more than 37 inches in men
- Low physical activity, not exercising often
- High levels of cholesterol in the body
- The presence of high blood pressure
- Ethnic South Asia
In addition to the above conditions, family history is also one of the risk factors for diabetes. Research shows that the descendants of diabetics are at a 15% risk of diabetes. While children born to parents who have diabetes have a 75% higher risk.
Complications of Type 2 Diabetes
If glucose becomes and is not treated, this can damage blood vessels, organs, nerves, eventually causing many complications of the disease. Here are some complications of the disease due to diabetes:
1. Heart disease and stroke
If blood glucose increases continuously, the blood vessels will narrow and become blocked by plaque or fat. This condition can interfere with blood flow to the heart and ultimately cause angina and even a heart attack. If it affects the blood vessels that supply the brain, a person can experience a stroke.
2. Damage to nervous system
Excess glucose in the blood can also damage small blood vessels, causing tingling and even pain at the fingertips. Nerves located outside the nervous system can be damaged, this condition is called peripheral neuropathy. If it occurs in the nerves in the digestive tract, the patient can experience vomiting, diarrhea or constipation.
3. Diabetic Retinopathy
This is a disease of retinal damage, and this occurs if small blood vessels in the retinal lining are blocked or damaged. This causes light to fail to pass through the retina and a person experiences loss of vision.
4. Kidney Disease
A blocked artery in the kidneys. Blockage and damage to blood vessels in the kidneys can affect the damage of kidney function. This usually occurs in patients who have experienced high blood pressure.
5. Foot Ulceration
Nerve damage to the foot can be a small wound that is not felt, this wound can develop into foot ulcers. This situation occurs at around 10% in diabetics.
Prevention, Treatment, and Care
For people with diabetes, blood sugar levels must always be in control so that any event can be taken quickly. A very important treatment for diabetes is lifestyle changes such as consuming healthy foods, regularly, balanced food and regular physical activity. If lifestyle changes cannot stop the blood sugar surge, this must be overcome by taking anti-diabetes drugs. Patients with type 2 diabetes that occur for years sometimes also need to be prescribed with an injection of insulin.
Healthy glucose levels must be maintained, including blood pressure and cholesterol. This is very important to prevent complications from type 2 diabetes.
FAQs Type 2 Diabetes
If you have type 2 diabetes, your body does not make or use insulin well. You can develop type 2 diabetes at any age, even during childhood. However, this form of diabetes occurs most often in middle-aged and older adults. Type 2 diabetes is much more common than type 1 diabetes.
What causes type 2 diabetes?
Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body becomes resistant to insulin or when the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps the body to control blood sugar levels. When insulin resistance occurs, the body is unable to use insulin properly, and blood sugar levels become higher than normal. When the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin, blood sugar levels can also become too high.
What are the symptoms of type 2 diabetes?
The symptoms of type 2 diabetes can be gradual and may not be noticeable at first. Often, the first sign is being overweight or obese. Other symptoms may include:
- Feeling very thirsty
- Feeling very hungry – even though you are eating
- Urinating often
- Feeling very tired
- Having blurry vision
- Cuts or bruises that heal slowly
- More infections than usual
If you have any of these symptoms, it’s important to see your doctor so you can be diagnosed and treated early.
How is type 2 diabetes diagnosed?
Your doctor can usually diagnose type 2 diabetes with a simple blood test. If your blood sugar level is higher than normal, you will need to have another blood test to confirm the diagnosis.
How is type 2 diabetes treated?
There is no cure for type 2 diabetes, but it can be controlled. Treatment involves making lifestyle changes and taking medication, if needed.
Making lifestyle changes
If you have type 2 diabetes, you will need to make some lifestyle changes, including:
- Eating a healthy diet
- Getting regular exercise
- Losing weight if you are overweight or obese
- Stopping smoking
These lifestyle changes can help to control your blood sugar levels and prevent complications from occurring.
If lifestyle changes alone are not enough to control your blood sugar levels, you may also need to take medication. The type of medication you will need will depend on your individual circumstances. Medication options include:
- Metformin – typically used as the first-line medication for type 2 diabetes
- Sulfonylureas – may be used if metformin does not work or is not tolerated
- Meglitinides – may be used if sulfonylureas are not effective or are not tolerated
- Insulin – may be needed if other medications are not effective in controlling blood sugar levels
Making lifestyle changes and taking medication can help to control your blood sugar levels and prevent complications from occurring.